1、 Three elements of color
How to start with restaurants, backgrounds and soft decorative fabrics with various functions? It is not an easy thing. However, if you master the basic knowledge of color, you will have a psychological foundation. These basic knowledge is the cornerstone for hotel catering personnel to become excellent.
Speaking of color, I must talk about the three elements of color. It is the hue, purity or chroma, or saturation and lightness of a color. All colors have three major signs - hue, purity and lightness. It is also called the three elements of color in color science. Knowing and mastering the three elements of color is very important for understanding and expressing color. Any change of the three elements will affect the appearance of the original color.
Hue is the biggest characteristic of color, which is the appearance of color, that is, the name of color. Such as red, orange, yellow, green, blue, purple, etc.
Purity refers to the purity of color. Also known as chroma, saturation, brightness, including gray, etc. The purity of the primary color is the highest. The higher the degree of purity, the purer the color; On the contrary, the lower the color purity. When one color is added to other colors, the purity changes. The more other colors are added, the lower the purity, and vice versa.
Lightness refers to the lightness and lightness of color. It refers to the change of a color after adding black and white colors. In short, the more white is added, the higher the brightness of the color, and vice versa; The more black is added, the lower the brightness of the color, and vice versa.
After understanding the three elements of color, let's take a look at the members of the color family. Theoretically, the members of the color family are infinite. Therefore, in order to form a color system that is easy to understand and easy to use, people arrange the colors of all hues on a 360 ° ring. This kind of hue replacement is called the hue ring. Common hue rings include twelve hues and twenty-four hues.
"Eaton twelve hue ring" is based on Johannes Eaton (Swiss designer and theorist of Bauhaus Institute, 1888-1967) is one of the most common hue rings. So what are the basic color knowledge contained in the "Eaton twelve hue rings"?
2、 Color fission
According to the number of color mixing, colors can be divided into primary color, secondary color, tertiary color
1. Primary color (primary color)
It is also called primary color or primary color, which is the basic color used to blend other colors. They are cyan, magenta and yellow. The purity of the three primary colors is the highest, the purest and the brightest. Many colors can be mixed, and other colors cannot be mixed out.
2. Secondary color (intermediate color)
The color produced by the blending of any two primary colors is the intermediate color, also known as the secondary color. For example: Red + yellow = orange, Yellow + blue = green, red + blue = purple. Orange, green and purple are the intermediate colors.
3. Tertiary color (multicolor)
Multicolor is a mixture of primary color and intermediate color or a mixture of intermediate color and intermediate color. It is also called tertiary color. For example: Yellow + orange = orange yellow, orange + Green = Brown (yellow gray), orange yellow and brown (yellow gray) are compound colors. The multicolor family is rich and varied.
3、 Color relations
According to the relationship of colors, colors can be divided into similar colors, adjacent colors, similar colors, contrast colors and complementary colors.
1. Homogeneous color
People often call some colors with the same hue (the color within 15 degrees in the color wheel) as the same color. They have the same hue property, but have different shades. Each color has a common pigment, so they are called the same color.
2. Adjacent color
People often call any color on the color wheel adjacent to it and those colors with moderate hue difference (the color with a distance of about 60 degrees in the color wheel) as adjacent colors. Its hue properties are similar, but there are weak differences between cold and warm. Such as yellow green and yellow; Yellow, orange, etc.
3. Similar color
It usually refers to the dichroic relationship on the color wheel with a left-right spacing of about 60-90 degrees. It is also called medium difference color.
4. Contrast color
The relative colors on the color wheel above 90 degrees and around 120 degrees to 150 degrees are often called contrast colors.
5. Complementary color
The relative colors at 180 degrees on the color wheel are called complementary colors, which are absolute contrasts. The contrast between the two colors is very strong, and they can highlight each other more when put together. The most common complementary color relationships are red and green, yellow and purple, blue and orange.